Q1. Select a data analytics of your choice (Mention the data analytics projects you have choosen) and discuss how the following roles add value to this initiative:
Business User, Project Sponsor, Project Manager, Business Intelligence Analyst, Database Administrator, and Data Engineer.
Q2. Discuss specific activities that each of these above mentioned roles may perform on a data analytics project that you select.
1. Please write in APA Style and include at least three (3) reputable sources.
2. The complete paper should be between 350-to-500-words.
5 Discussion Post and respond to 2 classmates Home Business & Finance homework help Marketing homework help 5 Discussion Post and respond to 2 classmates **5 DISCUSSION POST FOR EACH POST RESPOND TO TWO CLASSMATES’ POST** Weekly Lecture for discussion post 1 & 2: Integrated Marketing Communications Welcome to the world of the Integrated Marketing Communication! Since we know there is not one “right” way to communicate with an organization’s customers and potential customers, organizations must study carefully the options and venues available to reach their targeted market segments. While there are 4 P’s in the marketing mix (price, product, place, promotion), our course will focus on the “promotion” aspect of the marketing mix. Ogden & Ogden (2014) state marketing communications is a subset of marketing (section 1.1). For purposes of our course, we will use Hutton’s (as cited in Ogden & Ogden, 2014) definition of integrated marketing communication (IMC), “the process of coordinating and integrating all marketing communication tools into a seamless program to help the company achieve its objectives” (section 1.1). Companies frequently abbreviate marketing communications as marcom. Since the purpose of marketing communications is to build a relationship with potential customers, it is critical organizations spend resources and thought when developing their marcom. What does all this mean? It means the marketing manager must carefully consider the organizational objectives and constraints when selecting communication venues. It also means the organization should communicate one message to the public from every single area within the organization. This takes a lot of coordination. Below we will discuss corporate image, branding, and the effect of consumer attitudes. A corporate image is how consumers and other businesses feel about an organization and the brands of its individual product lines. A corporate image also summarizes what the organization stands for and how it is known in the marketplace. For instance, Clow and Baak (2012) use the examples of the “good hands” of Allstate or the “good neighbor” of State Farm. We know immediately the insurance organizations’ stand for reassurance and safety, which contributes to their corporate image. Since this is based on individual consumer perception, how might an organization set about creating its corporate image? Branding One way an organization creates its corporate image is by branding. The difference between corporate image and branding is simple: corporate image covers the entire organization and its reputation among its consumers, whereas branding covers a single product line or a group of complementary product lines. Hormel Foods is the corporate brand, and brand names of Dinty Moore and Jennie-O Turkey Store are product lines. Can you think of another corporate image with individual brands? What about Kraft? Proctor & Gamble? Coca-Cola? Johnson & Johnson? Take a look at the infographic below. Some of the brands for each corporation are listed: We recognize many of the brands from each corporation. The right name can differentiate an organization’s brand from its competitors with a single word (Manning, 2014). A good name should be interesting and memorable; generic-sounding names will not separate a brand from its competitors, so it is imperative the organization gets it right. On the other hand, intentionally selecting a name that is difficult to pronounce and/or spell can have a negative impact. A brand name requires an extensive search (Felber, 2012); however, used correctly, a brand name can evoke respect and create a sustainability to obtain and keep market share (Stephens, 2014). Attitudes What are attitudes? On the surface, this concept seems simple: an attitude is something we think, believe, or feel. Yet can there be more to an attitude? And how is a person’s attitude so influential toward consumer behavior? In order to determine what affects an attitude and how it is formed, it is first important to understand what attitude is: a “learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way with respect to a given object” (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2007, p. 268). An object can be a product, a product genre, a commercial, a service, etc. There are four broad categories of attitude models discussed in our text; the following will highlight additional research and insight into how an attitude is formed. Unlike many believe, a person’s behavior and attitude resemble the times more than the teachings from his or her childhood. Meredit and Schewe (1994) suggest our attitude is formed by our cohort group, from the experiences of our youth (see Appendix A). Ryder (1964) further suggests the cohort effect is defined as a group of people “born over a relatively short and contiguous time period as a ‘generational cohort’ that is deeply influenced and bound together by the events of their ‘formative years’ (p. 843). What does this mean for marketers? In the United States, the passage of adulthood occurs approximately between the ages of 17 and 21 (Meredith & Schewe, 1994, p. 24). Economic and national events that happen during this time tend to affect the lifelong attitude and, thus, consumer buyer behavior. Psychologists find these core values and attitudes remain largely unchanged throughout life (Meredith & Schewe). One illustration of attitudes and its effect on consumer behavior would be an organization positioning itself to appeal to a specific generation – if you are Pepsi, positioning yourself as a baby boomer’s soft drink would not be smart. Studies by Pepsi show Generation X and Generation Y tend to drink Pepsi, while baby boomers tend to drink Coca-Cola. The moral of the story? Find your customer, study their attitudes, and customize your marketing and advertising campaigns around ideas and events to which they will be able to relate! Remember the commercial with the person representing the IBM-based PC? (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ibwWYEV0tEU (Links to an external site.)) He was middle aged and conservative, whereas the person representing the Apple Mac was young, casually dressed, and portrayed as being open to change and growth – does this remind anyone of one of Apple’s co-founders, Steve Jobs? Forbes School of Business Faculty References: Apple Videos. Mac vs. PC commercial: Meant for work (Links to an external site.) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ibwWYEV0tEU Clow, K. E., & Baack, D. (2012). Integrated advertising, promotion, and marketing communications (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Felber, B. (2012, July). What’s in a name? Beware before you brand. Public Relations Tactics, 19(7), 7. Manning, S. (2014, January). What’s in a name? Entrepreneur, 42(1), 74-75. Meredith, G., & Schewe, C. (1994, December). The power of cohorts. American Demographics, 16(12), 22-31. Ogden, J. R., & Ogden, D. T. (2014). Utilizing a strategic marketing approach to managing marketing communications. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education. Stephens, T. (2014, January). What’s in a name? Private Label Buyer, 28(1), 26. Discussion 1: What is marcom? How have the functions within marketing communications become more integrated? What does the Forbes writer, Judy Begehr, say about how content will impact the IMC? Why is this important? Incorporate concepts and examples from this week’s lecture in your post. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts. Respond to classmate 1: Andre- What is Marcom? Marcom is an abbreviation for marketing communication, which defines interaction with consumers utilizing one or more versions of media. Some examples of media types are direct mail, magazines, newspapers, radio, television, telemarketing, billboards, and mainly the Internet. Marcom is instituted to provide fundamental and practical ways for companies to display their products they want to sell to consumers throughout the world. How have the functions within marketing communications become more integrated? The functions that are within marketing communications have become more integrated because businesses have found modernized ways to communicate with their clients or customers. Being that technology continues to be innovative, organizations throughout the world have found effective ways to target clients and customers by incorporating integrated marketing communication (IMC). Ogden & Ogden (2014) states that IMC is the process of organizing and consolidating all tools within marketing communications into a smooth program to help businesses excel and reach their purpose (Section 1.1). What does the Forbes writer, Judy Begehr, say about how content will impact the IMC? Why is this important? Judy Begehr emphasized in the Forbes article that content marketers can produce a collaborative and cooperative advertising solution that will meet the demands of the modernized digital world we are currently living in. Additionally, she elaborates that a well-developed content marketing business can be the essential formulated foundation that reaches the masses effortlessly. The point to be made is that for companies to elevate and prosper, Judy speaks on integrating a developmental plan to encompass all channels of marketing communication for the organization. Begehr, J. (2014, February 3). How content will impact the future of integrated communications. (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.) Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/gyro/2014/02/03/how-content-will-impact-the-future-of-integrated-communications/ Ogden, J. R., & Ogden, D. T. (2014). Integrated marketing communications: Advertising, public relations, and more [Electronic version]. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu/ Respond to classmate 2: Amy L – Marcom is the abbreviation for a company’s marketing communication and depending on how the company utilizes its communication will govern if they ultimately succeed or fail. Most organizations, if not all, use marcom to target and foster relationships with consumers, and it has had to morph through the years to remain relevant. Companies do this through numerous channels; direct mail, television, and radio, the internet, and telemarketing (Ogden, & Ogden, 2014). Integrated marketing communications (IMC) integrates and coordinates a variety of the available marketing tools in processes that work together to assist organizations with achieving their goals. As marketing evolved various functions within marcom became more integrated as a result. It was during the 1980s that marketing and advertising started to be more closely aligned to leverage the two disciplines and improve the whole communication system. This time was also when it was revealed that organizations needed to utilize consistent messages to the consumers to avoid confusion and gain brand awareness. It was essential to have all communication activities integrated into a consistent message to produce better overall results. This undertaking resulted in the development of integrated marketing (Ogden & Ogden, 2014). There are numerous benefits of IMC. Some of those benefits include relationship building with customers, generating clear and concise messaging that is integrated and understood by customers and employees, and ultimately making a positive impact on the organization’s financial position. Judy Begehr contends that progressive clients are expressing that content marketing will be the most critical tactic needed in an integrated marketing communication plan (Begehr, 2014). What is interesting is that the concept is so new that it might blur some lines again between marketing communications planning, content marketing, and traditional advertising. I think though, the vital piece to take from this article is that content marketing programs need to be well thought out and purposefully executed. For content marketing to be effective, the program must be what ultimately guides the development and messaging of the integrated plan across all channels. This concept is important because it continues to evolve this industry and will allow marketers to grow in new ways and continue to be relevant to organizations and consumers. References Begehr, J. (2014, February 3). How content will impact the future of integrated communications. (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/gyro/2014/02/03/how-content-will-impact-the-future-of-integrated-communications/ (Links to an external site.) Ogden, J. R., & Ogden, D. T. (2014). Integrated marketing communications: Advertising, public relations, and more. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Reply Discussion 2: Where do the IMC communications tactics fit within the marketing management flow chart and why? Why is it necessary to create integration and consistency with current and potential customers? Incorporate concepts and examples from this week’s lecture in your post. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts. Respond to classmate 1: Christina IMC communication tactics are short-term with a specific scope that produces clear implementations using tools and people that identify specific resources and actions that support company objectives and strategies (Ogden, 2014). The marketing mix such as product, price, channels of distribution, and IMC all have individual tactics that help shape and develop communication. Communication tactics are used to speak with internal and external customers, and employees that consist of communication regarding price, store location, directions for product usage, and new product developments (Ogden, 2014). Ogden (2014) further explains that “marketing tactics need to delineate who, when, how, where, and why the marketing is to be offered to the market”. It is important that those who are responsible for the overall tactical development be identified. Marketing tactics are important to the overall outcome of an organizations marketing plan. Collectively, marketing tactics make up the marketing program which includes budget and scheduling (Ogden, 2014). Organizations can then measure responses of their marketing efforts through surveys, blogs, and other methods of feedback (Ogden, 2014). Integrated marketing is important as its approach to product promotions through various strategies are reinforcements for the overall effectiveness of the message the marketing is trying to make to its targeted audience (Lake, 2019). The key to integrated marketing is consistency. Organizations have to consider their communication, advertising, collateral, public relations, websites, social media, staff, etc (Lake, 2019). Organizations needs to be sure that when either current or potential consumers see their advertisements that the audience knows what the advertisements is and who the company is (Lake, 2019). References Lake, L. (2019, May 31). What You Need to Know About Integrated Marketing Communications. Retrieved from https://www.thebalancesmb.com/integrated-marketing-communication-imc-2295501 (Links to an external site.) Ogden, J. R., & Ogden, D. T. (2014). Integrated marketing communications: Advertising, public relations, and more. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Respond to classmate 2: RENEE- IMC communications is a plan assessing communications in working with most effective, consistent communications creating the most impact for consumers through various ways via radio, internet, television and any other source of direct consumer communication. According to (Ogden & Ogden, 2014), IMC communications there are no standard or perfect plans existing in developing a marketing program. However, flow charts offer a plan in no specific order assisting in developing a marketing strategy. IMC fits within the flow chart under Marketing Tactics (Marketing Mix) as shown in Figure 2.1: The Marketing Management Flow Chart (section 2.1). Elements of the marketing mix controlled by marketing manager consisting of product, price, channels of distribution, and IMC. The IMC communications tactics consist of communication with internal and external customers as well as employees regarding product use, pricing, locations and developments (Ogden, & Ogden 2014). Key consistency with consumers is important in recognizing the brand/product and the product is relevant to the consumer needs as well as desires. As discussed in our weekly lecture, branding an image of recognition with consumers is vital within marketing. Cute jingles seem to stick in consumer mind by constantly hearing the repetitive song as they see the trademark signage, e.g. State Farm, “Like a Good Neighbor, State Farm is There”. By creating colorful brands and cute jingles, consumers will feel connected and become trustworthy of the product as the product itself integrates fulfilling the needs of their consumer. References Ogden, J. R., & Ogden, D. T. (2014). Integrated marketing communications: Advertising, public relations, and more. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Weekly lecture to assist with discussion post 3 and 4: Market Opportunity Analysis Once an organization has conducted an environmental analysis, it is time to look deeper into the potential of a given population in order to determine if there is a potential for sales and profits. This is called a “Market Opportunity Analysis” (Ogden & Ogden, 2014), and it is conducted for the marketing team to be able to determine if the market under consideration has the required elements for the organization to make a profit. Elements frequently considered on whether or not to enter into a market are Michael Porter’s (1979) five competitive strategies. Although Porter’s work was conducted 30 years ago, Porters five competitive strategies have stood the test of time and are used today in virtually every industry around the globe (Renko, Sustic, & Butigan, 2011): Rivalry among existing competitors; bargaining power of suppliers; bargaining power of buyers; threat of substitute products or services; and threat of new entrants (Porter). Understanding how each strategy impacts the organization’s industry as well as the surrounding members can be key to being able to identify the best markets with the highest probability of opportunities. Below is a graph of the five strategies and characteristics within each strategy. SMART Being able to accurately track the organization’s performance against the expectations is a critical activity. If the marketing strategy is performing below expectations, slight adjustments can be made in many cases. In extreme cases, the organization may have to reconsider its entire marketing strategy. One method for monitoring the marketing strategy’s progress toward meeting organizational objectives is to use the SMART metric of measurement. This stands for specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time (Ogden & Ogden, 2014). While the objectives can be for all the areas within marketing, this metric is most often used to measure whether or not the overall marketing strategy is performing according to expectations. In addition to the five competitive strategies, another component in the Market Opportunity Analysis is to identify a specific population group most likely to need and buy the organization’s goods or services, a target market. There are three components to identifying a target market: the consumer needs and will purchase your product; the consumer has enough money to purchase your product, and there are enough consumers in this targeted market segment to make it profitable for your organization to sell the product (Ogden & Ogden, 2014). Methods to communicate with the identified targeted market segment are achieved through the organizations Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) strategy and will be discussed below. Consistency with IMC If the ultimate goal is to positively affect buyer behavior and increase sales which, in turn, will increase shareholder wealth, how might an organization set about communicating in such a manner that will attract and engage its targeted market segment? One method is to use an Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) strategy. The American Association of Advertising Agencies suggests a single voice with a single message in all marketing communication channels has the greatest chance of being heard by the organization’s targeted market segment (Navarro-Bailón, 2012). Repetition on of the single message will also be effective (Ogden & Ogden, 2014). Although there are many trends and venues a marketing professional can use including glocalization and omni-channel marketing, there remains the need for a consistent, single message to be communicated to the organization’s targeted market segment in order to increase brand awareness and positively affect buyer behavior. Forbes School of Business Faculty References: Navarro-Bailón (2012, July). Strategic consistent messages in cross-tool campaigns: Effects on brand image and brand attitude. Journal of Marketing Communications, 18(3), 189-202. Ogden, J. R., & Ogden, D. T. (2014). Utilizing a strategic marketing approach to managing marketing communications. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education. Porter, M. E. (1979, July-August). How competitive forces shape strategy. Harvard Business Review, 1-9. Renko, N., Sustic, I., & Butigan, R. (2011). Designing marketing strategy using the five competitive forces model by Michael E. Porter – Case of a small bakery in Croatia. International Journal of Management Cases, 13(3), 376-385. Discussion 3: What are the steps a buyer passes through when making a buying decision? What other factors might influence a purchase? Think about something you recently purchased and discuss each buying decision step and other factors that influence your decision to buy. Incorporate concepts and examples from this week’s lecture in your post. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts. Respond to classmate 1: Kemba – Each and every day we go through the buying process. Most days we either buy breakfast, lunch, dinner, clothes, devices and many other things. When purchasing items there are many decisions that consumers take into consideration. The buyer decision is a set of steps that the customers goes through before they decades on what item they actually wants. The consumer buyer process and the business buying process, intertwines in some way or the other. Most businesses provides product and services that are in high demand of the consumers. This process is also influenced by both internal and external factors. These are the factors that influence a buyer’s decision according to the buyers’ choice article, “Physiological needs, information search, Social needs Need of recognition, Self-fulfillment” (Svatošová, 2013). These set of analysis helps consumers or business come to a final decision. In regards to businesses “usage rate and whether a consumer is a light, medium, or heavy user of a firm’s products are also important” Ogden & Ogden, 2014).The physiological need is triggered by maybe someone being hungry, or maybe an internal stimuli. Then there is information search. This step come right after your stimuli. Once you realize that you need something then you would start looking for it. Then the need recognition is also known as the evaluation process. This step is where they find a few of the same product and then start evaluation them via price or quality or maybe different criteria. Then there would be the purchase decision. The purchase decision is actually where the purchase is being made. Then post purchase behavior is the way the person feels after they used the product or service. This is where they evaluate their purchases. Other factor that may affect the buyers are “price, quality, convenience and payment conditions” (Banerjee & Pawar, 2014). Price is definitely a great factor that may influence a buyers’ decision. If they price is low the quality is great, the customer will always go for that specific product. So I recently bought new clothes for work. The first step in my purchasing process was, the need recognition. I started a new job so I needed new work clothes. Then there was the factor of quality of the clothes and definitely the price of these clothes. I was using a budget, so therefore the clothes had to be within that budget. References Banerjee, S., & Pawar, S. (2014). Factors affecting the Consumer Buying Behavior in Kidswear Market and Perceptual Mapping of the Kidswear Brands of Shopper’s Stop. Journal of Management Research (09725814), 14(4), 257–269. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,cpid&custid=s8856897&db=bsh&AN=129238212&site=ehost-live (Links to an external site.) Ogden, J. R., & Ogden, D. T. (2014). Utilizing a strategic marketing approach to managing marketing communications. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education Svatošová, V. (2013). Motivation of Online Buyer Behavior. Journal of Competitiveness, 5(3), 14–30. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.7441/joc.2013.03.02 Reespon to classmate 2: Felcia- At some point in our lives we have all made an impulse or rash purchase. It can be a pair of shoes, unneeded clothes or even something of great extravagance like an automobile. After the dust on this decision had settled, we realize that several steps were omitted to the buying process and pertinent information missing from the decision. If time is taken and evaluations are made prior to the final actions, a buyer will pass through five steps along their reasoning and rationalization of an item (Ogden & Ogden, 2014). The realization that a need exists and the desire is identified, followed by research and investigating of products that fit the need or desire (Ogden & Ogden, 2014). This research can include the consumer reviews and the opinions of others familiar with the product (Simonson, 2016). When the research is completed, then evaluation of the findings can commence, leading to the purchase of the desired and researched item (Ogden & Ogden, 2014. When this process is complete, the consumer accesses the entire process to determine if they are pleased with the experience as a whole (Ogden & Ogden, 2014). While using these steps in the process of deciding on the right product for a need, there are other factors that can play into the decision. The opinions and expectations of other people can play a role in the decision-making process for consumers through the evaluating of social norms (Melnyk, van Herpen, Jak & van Trijp, 2019). Looking at what the people that surround the consumer feel are acceptable can play a part in directing the mind set of a purchase (Melnyk, van Herpen, Jak & van Triip, 2019). The family of the consumer can dictate the direction of a purchase, as well as cultural values and age of the consumer (Ogden & Ogden, 2014). The situation, when looked at from an ethical perspective, forces the consumer to look at the rights and wrongs of the purchase and how it will affect their lives (Yacout & Vitell, 2018). Personally, the decision-making process for a large purchase is exhausting. My family decided to purchase a new laptop computer for both my school needs, as well as my children’s school requirements. While the identification of the need for this computer was evident, the purchase did not need to take place immediately. Having this time allowed me to search for information about different computers, as well as the best time to purchase (Ogden & Ogden, 2014). While I initially wanted a laptop computer, I evaluated desk top and tablets to give an alternative (Ogden & Ogden, 2014). Looking at area back to school offers and our home states tax free weekend bonus, it was decided that an HP EliteBook 735 fit all of our needs and was within the allotted budget. Evaluation of the product and the value has been positive thus far and we all are benefitting from the use in our educational works (Ogden & Ogden, 2014). References: Melnyk, V., van Herpen, E., Jak, S., & van Trijp, H. C. M. (2019). The mechanisms of social norms’ influence on consumer decision making: A meta-analysis. Zeitschrift Für Psychologie, 227(1), 4–17. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.1027/2151-2604/a000352 (Links to an external site.) Ogden, J. R., & Ogden, D. T. (2014). Integrated marketing communications: Advertising, public relations, and more. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Simonson, I. (2016). Imperfect Progress: An Objective Quality Assessment of the Role of User Reviews in Consumer Decision Making, A Commentary on de Langhe, Fernbach, and Lichtenstein. Journal of Consumer Research, 42(6), 840–845. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.1093/jcr/ucv091 (Links to an external site.) Yacout, O. M., & Vitell, S. (2018). Ethical consumer decision‐making: The role of need for cognition and affective responses. Business Ethics: A European Review, 27(2), 178–194. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.1111/beer.12178 Discussion 4: What is the outcome of conducting a market opportunity analysis? Examine two components of the MOA and assess how each contributes to an effective IMC. Incorporate concepts and examples from this week’s lecture in your post. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts. Respond to classmate 1: Shaun- Market opportunity analysis is a tool used to identify and access the attractiveness of a business opportunity. The market is analyzed to determine if a business venture would be profitable. Arguably the most important thing which must be considered in this process is the demand for a product. One component of MOA is the target market. The target market is any given group of current or potential customers toward whom the firm aims its marketing efforts. The target market consists of three main characteristics. People who are willing to purchase the product, people who can afford the product and having enough people interested in the product to generate a market. Another component of MOA is marketing objectives. Marketing objectives are specific goals a marketing manager wants to reach with the marketing program. Marketing objectives guide a business to create and execute ideas that accomplish goals set forth. The SMART approach can help achieve your marketing objectives by asking the following questions are the objectives Specific, Measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-sensitive. If an organization wants an excellent product for costumers, at an excellent price for themselves and the consumer, IMC plays a significant role. Target marketing and having marketing objectives connect the consumers with the company through communication. Resources: Ogden, J. R., & Ogden, D. T. (2014). Utilizing a strategic marketing approach to managing marketing communications. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education Respon to classmate 2: Amy- The outcome of a market opportunity analysis (MOA) would be to assist the marketing team with detecting opportunities in the market, including competition and the marketing activities they are implementing, that could enable the organization to increase profits. MOAs also need to take into consideration the market size; a total of sales or revenues that come from the market (Ogden & Ogden, 2014). This process helps gauge whether it will be valuable to pursue that particular market. Referenced in our week’s lecture is Michael Porter’s Five Forces that gives us an understanding of competitive strategies. Porter’s concept is one component of an MOA and allows marketers to detect which markets can result in determining the most significant opportunities. The approach looks at the competitive rivalry and the elements that interact with it. The components include: threat of new entry which looks at time and cost, barriers, and cost advantages; buyer power which looks at customer base, sensitivity to prices, order sizes, and potential substitution; threat of substation which looks at costs associated with changes and the performance of the substitute; and supplier power which looks at the size and how many suppliers are competing, distinctiveness of the organization’s service, and the ease to substitute. The second component is for marketers to identify the target market accurately. A target market is defined by determining the current or future group of consumers the organization is looking to focus on through the marketing plan (Ogden & Ogden, 2014). When marketers can effectively identify their target market and competitors the better, they can build the marketing plan and the integrated marketing communication (IMC) strategy around them. One thing marketers need to remember is to include measurements that will track the progress and allow them to identify trends and fine-tune the strategy and messages if appropriate along the way. One tool that can be used in goal setting is the SMART process. That is an acronym for specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound (Ogden & Ogden, 2014). It is critical for success that the plan provides direction for one consistent message to reach potential customers, so there is no confusion with the product or service being sold. It also creates trust over time, which leads to loyalty and hopefully repeat purchases and increased revenues. References Ogden, J. R., & Ogden, D. T. (2014). Integrated marketing communications: Advertising, public relations, and more. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Weekly lecture for discussion 5 : Advertising Message Welcome to the world of advertising! How many of you think advertisers unfairly influence us and “make” us buy items we do not need, cannot afford, and will not use? If you raised your hand or silently said “I do,” then you are among a majority of people who think advertisers will lie to encourage sales and believe consumers are helpless pawns in the corporate game of profitability. Nothing could be further from the truth! Advertisers design catchy slogans, phrases, and songs to help us remember the points about a particular item the organization thinks will appeal to us. Did advertisers create the need? No! Did advertisers determine whether or not we wanted an item? Again, no! Although the psychology behind buyer motivation is the focus for another course, advertisers only use what is known to appeal to a specific group of buyers in hopes of affecting sales. We are entering a world of bright lights, vivid colors, and every sensory perception will become aware when a commercial is on that appeals to something we have decided we need. Why do we want a Mercedes? Good quality? No, superior quality! But does it really cost $30,000 more to manufacturer a Mercedes than, say, a Ford? Most likely not. Then why do we have a mental image of a Mercedes as a premium product? Why, advertisers, of course! Keep in mind as we move throughout our course . . . advertisers work very hard to write messages and music that will appeal to us and motivate us into action. The objective of advertising is to “inform, persuade, and reminder consumers about business and organizational products and other offerings” (Ogden & Ogden, 2014, section 4.1). There are three message executional frameworks: cognitive; affective; and conative, and how marketers determine which strategy has the highest probability of producing the desired effect on consumer behavior (Clow & Baack, 2012). Parker (2013) stated national universities tend to use more emotional, ego-based ads whereas regional universities tend to use more informational and rational ads. National universities use the affective message strategy, whereas regional universities use the cognitive message strategy. The key is to determine what type of message has the greatest chance of impacting consumer behavior. Writing an advertising plan requires tedious and detailed concentration on many items. Figure 4.1 (Ogden & Ogden, 2014) in our text lists the ten steps in writing an advertising plan. As you can see from the figure, there is a tremendous amount of work involved in the planning. Today’s marketing managers are being held responsible for ROI within their allocated budget, so time must be taken to get the advertising plan written in a manner for the greatest possible return. Media Selection Media planning is written with the five W’s in mind (Ogden & Ogden, 2014): who, what, why, when, and where. Following this format will ensure all the relevant information will be included within the media planning. In addition, media planning must take such factors as reach, frequency, and Gross Rating Points (GRP) into consideration. Reach refers to the number of people who will be exposed to the advertising message at least one time while the advertising campaign is running. Frequency refers to the average number of times the audience was exposed to the advertisement during the campaign. Finally, Gross Rating Points combine reach with frequency in an effect to determine the weight of the message (Ogden & Ogden). With all those ads running, how does an organization’s message get through all the “clutter”? Clow and Baack (2012) suggested the use of celebrities could capture and keep audience attention. In addition to incorporating the seven principles (visual consistency, sufficient campaign duration, repeated taglines, consistent positioning, simplicity, presentation of an identifiable selling point, and creation of an effective flow) (p. 191), the authors suggested an effective manner of overcome the clutter is ad repetition and running ads on various types of media. In our current economic downturn, media agencies are scrambling to meet the advertising needs of their customers – customers who now may not have enough money to pay for the media contract still in effect (“Media Agencies,” 2008). Organizations must now deliver results from advertising on an increasingly decreasing advertising budget, a stressful situation for the organization as well as the media agency. For example, KFC has set high standards for their media agency and expect delivery (“Meet,” 2008). With so many choices available, which media might be the most effective in attracting an organization’s targeted market segment? According to Jeter (2003), an auto advertisement works 50% of the time. But which 50% is working? And in which advertising medium? A common theory, although not supported by scientific methodology, is some media work better than others. Vincent and Vincent (1996) claim television ads have a significant effect on buyer motivating behavior, while magazines are most effective for creating brand awareness. Nowak, Cameron, and Krugman (1993) declare a survey delivered by mail and telephone actually assist advertisers in which media is most effective for an industry. Their findings indicate audience reach and specific targeting of a desired market segment are most important when selecting an advertising media. Cost is secondary to audience reach. Yet, how does an advertising executive determine the “best” types of media? Kassaye and Vaccaro (1991/1992) suggested that as the demographics and lifestyles of consumers change, the traditional selection of media must be challenged and reformed. In addition, the cost of such advertising must be considered. Our text does a very good job of discussing reach, frequency, opportunity to see, gross ratings, etc. Does it make sense to advertise in a daily print newspaper if you are advertising about a product targeted toward a Generation Y consumer? Of course not! Instead, advertising professionals must determine a venue where the targeted market segment congregates. Where might a media venue be that offers the greatest opportunity of reaching Generation Y consumers? We will discuss this issue in greater detail within our discussion forums. In conclusion, which media is “best”? In short, choose an advertising media for an organization’s advertising message that has the greatest probability of being read, seen, or heard by the organization’s targeted market segments. Forbes School of Business Faculty References: Clow, K. E., & Baack, D. (2012). Integrated advertising, promotion, and marketing communications (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Jeter, L. W. (2003, September 15-21). Auto ads pack punch, but which medium works best? Mississippi Business Journal, A15. Kassaye, W. W., & Vaccaro, J. P. (1991/1992, Winter). Increasing advertising effectiveness through better selection of the media. Review of Business, 13(3), 40. Media agencies: Time for a new model? Marketing Week, 27. Meet the client. (2008, October 14). Media Week, 17. Nowak, G. J., Cameron, G. T., & Krugman, D. M. How local advertisers choose and use advertising media. Journal of Advertising Research, 33(6). Ogden, J. R., & Ogden, D. T. (2014). Utilizing a strategic marketing approach to managing marketing communications. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education. Parker, B. T. (2013). Institutional advertising in higher education: A comparison of creative strategy, message content, and executional devices in television commercials from national and regional universities. American Academy of Advertising. Conference Proceedings (online): 199. Lubbock, TX: American Academy of Advertising. Vincent, M. & Vincent, A. (1996, June). Which medium works best? Admap, 31(6), 12. Discussion 5: Select three advertisements from three different countries using traditional advertising venues and Internet advertising venues. Assess how culture and ethics influence understanding the ad from each country. Incorporate concepts and examples from this week’s lecture in your post. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts. Respond to classmate 1: Renee- Marketing concepts perceive companies to strive in customer satisfaction of wants and needs with company profits (Ogden & Ogden, 2014). Commercial advertisements may vary from country to country; however, commercials have the same agenda of influencing consumers. As more companies are becoming more global through internet expansion, it is important to be aware of cultural differences and understand international laws (Ogden & Ogden, 2014). Week three’s discussion purpose is to compare three advertisements from three different countries assessing culture and ethics influences. Below are the following countries I have selected to assess culture and ethical influence. Canada: Canadian Tire This television commercial advertisement begins with an intense scene of a helicopter flying above an automobile on an open paved road. The pilot begins promoting the Canadian Tire by describing the durability of the tires on solid dry pavement equally guaranteed safe with torrential rain conditions. The pilot releases torrential water from the helicopter onto the automobile, the tire tread proves to remain connected with the pavement, as the automobile suddenly has to come to a complete stop. The traction and durability of the tires proven in not only dry conditions but wet conditions as well. The Canadian Tires is a product connected through all cultures. Consumers view business organizations as a way of keeping the economy growing, especially reaching consumers through advertisements. Consumers expected to research and understand the products they are purchasing as a way of allowing the consumer to beware of the product purchasing laws in place not only protect the consumer but the seller as well (Ogden & Ogden, 2014). Italy: Pasta Reggia As this television, commercial advertisement begins with an Italian family preparing dinner. The son prepares a bland meal (celery, broccoli) for the family; the mother recognizes the family’s disappointment with the meal and adds the Pasta Reggia. The family perks up with the delicious pasta added to the menu for dinner as this commercial promotes the satisfaction of hunger through their culture connection of pasta. However, this commercial may be offensive to other cultures promoting the vegetable options not satisfying and boring. The Fair Packaging and Labeling Act of 1966 apply as a consumer protection law-enabling consumers to compare products (Ogden & Ogden, 2014). Although pasta is a staple food connecting many different cultures, an Italian family was not necessary as Pasta representative. China: Audi Used Cars The setting begins with a wedding in China. The couple is getting married when the mother-in-law interrupts the ceremony when she began inspecting the bride as if a veterinarian would inspect an animal. The commercial is a gesture that an important decision (checking out merchandise) occur prior to purchasing (in comparison to marriage) used automobile. The commercial received criticism as being sexist trash comparing women to used cars. Depending on the cultural differences, some may find the comparison humorous and others disgusting. The message received portrays women used by others maybe in a promiscuous way, as she needed to pass inspection for clearance. In some cultures may see it as a mom being protective of her son, as others may think of it as being sexist. This commercial seemed to push ethical boundaries with poor representation of women. Ogden & Ogden (2014) notes some companies push boundaries just to be recognized. Our week three lecture reminds us as consumers, we can be easily enticed by advertising messages. Messages can be misleading when misunderstood through the difference in cultures. The objective of advertising is to “inform, persuade, and remind consumers about business and organizational products and other offerings” (Ogden & Ogden, 2014, section 4.1). So, as consumers, we should keep an open mind and do research prior to purchases. References (2017), Audi controversial TV ad, Retrieved fromAudi’s controversial TV ad in mainland China (Links to an external site.) Audi’s controversial TV ad in mainland China (n.d.), Canadian Tire. Retrieved from https://www.adforum.com/creative-work/best-of/13313/o-canada-best-of-canadian-ads/play#34496345 (Links to an external site.) Ogden, J. R., & Ogden, D. T. (2014). Integrated marketing communications: Advertising, public relations, and more. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. (2017) Pasta Reggia – Italian TV Commercial, Retrieved from https://vimeo.com/195484830 (Links to an external site.) Reply Respond to classmate 2: Shaun- Coca Cola Advertisement in America This particular Coca Cola advertisement is from America, and the culture of the country is being reflected very well through this magazine advertisement (Arli, 2017). Christmas is a very significant part of the American culture, and the way the image of Santa Claus is being used reflects that even he needs a pause to refresh himself amid distributing gifts. The advertisement is also ethically correct as it is not offensive; in fact, it is showcasing the joy and bustle of the holiday season. One can also see that the main essence of the advertisement is to celebrate the richness of the American culture by showcasing the most iconic holiday of the United States. Coca Cola Advertisement in Pakistan This Coca-cola advertisement is gracing many billboards in Pakistan, and it showcases the Pakistani culture quite well. In Pakistan, the people are very fond of authentic traditional cuisine, which is usually very spicy, and people like to pair it with a beverage. Coca Cola has taken that opportunity and projected itself as a drink that is a perfect pair for the Pakistani cuisine. Further, the ad is ethically correct and is doing justice to the Pakistani culture and cuisine while keeping intact the essence of Coca Cola’s mission statement. On the other hand, if Coca Cola will showcase pork meat in the food items that would be ethically offensive. Pakistan is a Muslim country that is why Pakistanis do not consume pork due to religious restrictions (Kadić-Maglajlić et al., 2017). Coca Cola Advertisement in China This Coca-Cola advertisement from a television ad showcases the Chinese culture beautifully. The brand is staying true to its mission while also incorporating the diversity needed to make a mark in a different country with diverse beliefs. In China, family values carry great importance, and this as captures that; a beautiful Chinese family is having a great time with one another while enjoying a refreshing glass of Coca Cola. Conclusion It is evident that Coca Cola is a seasoned brand when it comes to marketing, and they know how to keep things inclusive in light of the culture and the beliefs of the country they have expanded to. It can be seen in the diversity that is being portrayed by the three advertisements mentioned above (Kadić-Maglajlić et al., 2017). The brand shows that ethics and culture play a significant role in an advertisement; Americans will less likely consume spicy Pakistani cuisine and Pakistani’s do not eat ham. References Arli, D. (2017). Does ethics need religion? Evaluating the importance of religiosity in consumer ethics. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 35(2), 205-221. Kadić-Maglajlić, S., Arslanagić-Kalajdžić, M., Micevski, M., Michaelidou, N., & Nemkova, E. (2017). Controversial advert perceptions in SNS advertising: The role of ethical judgment and religious commitment. Journal of Business Ethics, 141(2), 249-265. Blog ArchiveCopyright © 2019 HomeworkMarket.com Read More Applied SciencesArchitecture and DesignBiologyBusiness & FinanceChemistryComputer ScienceGeographyGeologyEducationEngineeringEnglishEnvironmental scienceSpanishGovernmentHistoryHuman Resource ManagementInformation SystemsLawLiteratureMathematicsNursingPhysicsPolitical SciencePsychologyReadingScienceSocial Science
**5 DISCUSSION POST FOR EACH POST RESPOND TO TWO CLASSMATES’ POST** Weekly Lecture for discussion…
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