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one answer to each discussion.   discussion 1 Review the following research ques

one answer to each discussion.   discussion 1 Review the following research questions. Is the use of soap and water or alcohol-based rubs more effective in preventing nosocomial infections? Identify an appropriate research design. An appropriate research design for this research question is quantitative research with an experimental design. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the design. According to Roger Watson (2015), quantitative studies produce numbers that should be interpreted before conclusions may be drawn. This can be considered a strength for this design as numbers allows the researcher to draw conclusion easily. An area of weakness is the idea that the opportunity for error cannot be eliminated entirely. According to Watson (2015) “it is essential to store data carefully, once it has been entered into any package, since loss can jeopardize the study”. Provide a rationale for the design you selected This design allows the research to manipulate the independent variable in order to study the effect it has on the dependent variable. In this case, the researcher is able to identify the effect of soap and water on the prevention of nosocomial infections and the effect is alcohol-based rubs on the prevention if nosocomial infections. The number of occurrences will be compared to draw a conclusion How effective are anti-depressive medications on anxiety and depression? Identify an appropriate research design. An appropriate research design for this research question is qualitative design. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the design. According to Leslie Gelling (2014), while utilizing qualitative research, nurses to understand health and illness experiences and offer ‘compassionate, person-centered care. This is considered to be a strength for this design. Gelling also stated that “a poorly worded question might lead the research in the wrong direction, wasting the researcher’s time and, more importantly, wasting the research participants’ time if the chosen methodology is unable to answer the question (Gelling, 2014). This is the weakness of this design. Provide a rationale for the design you selected Qualitative research is an approach to scientific inquiry that allows researchers to explore human experiences in personal and social contexts, and gain greater understanding of the factors influencing these experiences. What is the difference in attitudes of male and female college students toward condoms? Identify an appropriate research design. An appropriate research design for this research question is a qualitative descriptive design. In a descriptive study without manipulating any variables. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the design. According to Pathak, Jena, and Kalra (2013), qualitative research is now recognized for its ability to add a new dimension to interventional studies that cannot be obtained through measurement of variables alone. This can be considered to be a strength of this design. Qualitative studies should be well-designed and the aims of the study should be meticulously adjudicated (Pathak, Jena, & Kalra, 2013). On the other hand, descriptive research also presents the possibility for error and subjectivity. Confidentiality is the primary weakness of descriptive research (Murphy, n.d.). Often subjects are not truthful as they feel the need to tell the researcher what they think the researcher wants to hear (Murphy, n.d.). Provide a rationale for the design you selected Qualitative method is used to understand people’s beliefs, experiences, attitudes, behavior, and interactions. References Gelling, L. (2015). Qualitative research. Nursing Standard, 29(30), 43. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu/10.7748/ns.29.30.43.e9749 Murphy, J. (n.d.). Strengths and weaknesses of descriptive research. Retrieved from, http://classroom.synonym.com/strengths-weaknesses-descriptive-research-2596.html Pathak, V., Jena, B., & Kalra, S. (2013). Qualitative research. Perspectives in Clinical Research, 4(3), 192. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.4103/2229-3485.115389 Watson, R. (2015). Quantitative research. Nursing Standard, 29(31), 44. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu/10.7748/ns.29.31.44.e8681   discussion 2 Use of Soap and Water Versus Alcohol-Based Rubs to Prevent Nosocomial Infections The study chosen for this topic researched the effects of waterless hand rubs versus the traditional hand scrubbing method to prevent infections in surgical rooms.  One hundred operating room staff members from different medical centers were divided into two groups of fifty participants (Chen, Han, Kan, Chen & Hung, 2012).  One group used waterless hand rubs and the other group of workers used traditional hand washing techniques as part of the scrubbing process for surgeries.  The hands of the participants were scrubbed and a bacterial culture was done on the two groups of participants (Chen et al., 2012).  After a forty-eight hour period of bacterial growth of both samples, the results demonstrated bacteria growth was equal among the two groups (Chen et al., 2012).  There were no statistical significance found.  The study concluded that alcohol-based rubs and water provide the same level of protection among operating room staff (Chen et al., 2012). Strengths and Weaknesses One of the strengths of the study was the method of conducting the study was the same among the two participant groups (Chen et al., 2012).  The time the participants took in applying the alcohol-based rub and washing hands were the same.  The weakness of the study was the participant sample was rather small (Chen et al., 2012).  A larger study conducted at different facilities provides better evidence of the findings.  Also, a study with a larger sample population may have also resulted in different findings (Chen et al., 2012). Rationale for the Design The study selected is a quantitative research that attempted to estimate the required scrubbing times using alcohol-based scrubs and traditional handwashing technique for operating room staff (Chen et al., 2012).  Also the study focused on comparing the use of alcohol-based hand rubs versus the traditional handwashing techniques in prevention of nosocomial infections in the operating room (Chen et al., 2012). Relationship Between Alcohol and Breast Cancer The article reviewed focused on possible pathways of alcohol into the breast tissue and possible consequences.  The study also reviewed the women’s age in relations to drinking habits, in an attempt to identify a possible connection between early alcohol consumption among women and breast cancer (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015).  The study concluded that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with higher risk of breast cancer (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015). Strengths and Weaknesses A strength of the study is there was significant evidence to suggest that the risk of cancer increases by thirty-four percent for those women who had an alcohol intake greater than fifteen drinks per day (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015).  A weakness identified in the study was that other lifestyle components that may increase the risk of breast cancer were not taken into consideration when conducting the study (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015). Rationale for the Design This research was focused on the possible influence of timing and patterns of alcohol consumption and the possible mechanisms underlying alcohol and breast cancer association.  The possible pathways of alcohol into the breast tissue were studied (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015).  The women’s age in relation to drinking habits for possible connection between early alcohol consumption in women and breast cancer were also studied (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015). Difference in Attitudes Between Male and Female Students Towards Condoms Female and male participants from a treatment-seeking substance abuse treatment program were studied in relations to their attitudes and skills towards the use of condoms.  The study found that men found more barriers to using condoms than women (Calsyn, Peavy, Wells, Campbell, Hatch-Maillette, Greenfield & Tross, 2013).  The study used electronic interviews for assessment of skills and attitude towards the use of condom (Calsyn et al., 2013). Strengths and Weaknesses A strength of the stud

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