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Question 1: ATP as the energy currency of the cell ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

Question 1: ATP as the energy currency of the cell ATP (adenosine triphosphate) has been called the energy currency of the cell. Briefly outline the cycle by which energy is stored in and released from ATP. Explain the importance of the phosphate bond to this series of processes. Be prepared to discuss how ATP is critically important to cellular chemical processes.   Below are the posts that responses are needed for. Please keep in mind that the responses should be positive in nature, to extend the discussion panel.     1) (David) ATP as the energy currency of the cell ATP (adenosine triphosphate) has been called the energy currency of the cell. Briefly outline the cycle by which energy is stored in and released from ATP. Explain the importance of the phosphate bond to this series of processes. Be prepared to discuss how ATP is critically important to cellular chemical processes. The phosphate bond is very important in this process with ATP because the positively charged phosphate and the negatively charged oxygen stabilizes the product (ADP+P). When bonds are broken the increased stability is due to the resonance to ensure structure. ADP has the same bonds structure as a ATP but with one less phosphate group. This is also the same three reasons ATP bonds are high energy apply to ADP’s bonds. The soring of energy is created when three phosphate molecules are bonded. When energy is released it happens when the phosphate goes from three to two molecules which means the bond has been broken and energy released. The formula is commonly writing ADP + Pi. When energy is released   2) Rodney Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the process of which energy is taken from food, stored, and then released at a later time. Adenosine consists of an organic molecule called adenosine plus a tail of three phosphate groups. Each phosphate group is negatively charged and they repel each other. The crowding of negative charges in the triphosphate tail contributes to the potential energy of ATP. Energy is released of the phosphate at the tip of the triphosphate tail that makes energy available to working cells. What remains is ADP, adenosine diphosphate (two phosphate groups instead of three). ATP energizes other molecules in cells by transferring phosphate groups to those molecules. When a target molecule accepts the third phosphate group, it becomes energized and can then perform work in the cell. As a renewable resource. ATP can be restored by adding a phosphate group back to ADP. This requires energy, and that’s where food comes into place. The chemical energy that cellular respiration harvests from sugars and other organic fuels is put to work regenerating a cell’s supply of ATP. References Simon, E. J., Dickey, J. L., Reece, J. B., Hogan, K. A. (1–2015). Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology, 5th Edition. [South University]. Retrieved from https://digitalbookshelf.southuniversity.edu/#/books/1323125574/   Question 2: Enzyme action and their importance to life Enzymes are protein materials that serve to control chemical processes within the cell. Briefly describe how enzymes work and explain their importance to the chemical processes of living organisms. Pick a specific enzyme and describe its function and the importance of that function to life. Discuss how the loss of that enzyme would disrupt living processes? Be prepared to discuss the action and importance of the variety of enzymes used as examples in this discussion. Below are the posts that responses are needed for. Please keep in mind that the responses should be positive in nature, to extend the discussion panel.           1) David Enzymes are protein materials that serve to control chemical processes within the cell. Briefly describe how enzymes work and explain their importance to the chemical processes of living organisms. Pick a specific enzyme and describe its function and the importance of that function to life. Discuss how the loss of that enzyme would disrupt living processes? Be prepared to discuss the action and importance of the variety of enzymes used as examples in this discussion. Enzymes help speed up the process called metabolism. Most metabolic reaction occurs without enzymes, but enzymes assist proteins that speed up the breakdown process for chemical reaction. Molecules absorb energy from their surroundings to make more energy. Activation energy is energy that is invested to start reactions. Enzymes enable metabolism to occur by reducing the activation energy. References   Simon, E. J., Dickey, J. L., Reece, J. B., Hogan, K. A. (1–2015). Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology, 5th Edition. [South University]. Retrieved from https://digitalbookshelf.southuniversity.edu/#/books/1323125574/ 2)Rodney The completion of all the chemical reactions in an organism is called metabolism. But almost no metabolic reactions occur without the aid of enzymes, or proteins that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy needed to cause a reaction, without being consumed by those reactions. An example of an enzyme is lactase which is a protein developed in the small intestine that aids in the breakdown of lactose. Lactase levels decrease in a significant rate after the age of 2 years in most people. Lactose that is not broken down in the small intestine passes into the large intestine where bacteria feed on it and belch out gaseous by-products. Unfortunately, without a treatment for lactose intolerance, the best option is a reduction and/or avoidance of foods and drinks rich in lactose.  Also in pill form, lactase can be taken with food to ease digestion by artificially providing the enzyme that the body naturally lacks.

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